Oceania is the smallest continent on Earth, most of which is Australia, the main and most developed country in the region.
The Oceania is a continent located southeast of Asia, comprising a group of islands added to Australia, the latter regarded as a landmass called “Australasia”. It has a total area of 8,480,355 km², where approximately 38 million people live. Because it was the last continent to be colonized by Europeans, Oceania is nicknamed “the new continent”, in distinction to Europe (the old world) and America (the new world), according to the Eurocentric regionalization of the Earth.
Although there are thousands of islands in the region, there are only 14 independent states, as well as some territories or colonies of other countries, especially French Polynesia, French protectorate where Tahiti is located. There is a regionalization involving these islands, dividing them into three large zones: Melanesia (meaning “islands of the blacks”), Polynesia (“many islands”) and Micronesia (“small islands”), as we can see on the map below.
List of All Countries in Oceania
- Marshall Islands
- New Zealand
- Papua New Guinea
- Solomon Islands
With the exception of the region that comprises the Australian shield, all the relief units of Oceania are geologically recent, highlighting the numerous volcanic islands. The large number of islands of this type is linked to the intense presence of volcanism along the oceanic zones, thanks to the encounter between two tectonic plates that occurs in that locality.
Because it is cut by the Equator line further north and by the Tropic of Capricorn to the south, the continent has predominantly tropical climate and vegetation, with the presence of some of the largest deserts in the world in the interior of Australia, largely due to the actions Climatic conditions of continentality.
In economic terms, the two main countries are Australia and New Zealand, considered to be one of the only developed countries in the world that are located in the southern hemisphere. They are great mineral powers and, in sheep farming, besides possessing advanced agroindustrial and tourist models, this last activity is the predominant one in the rest of the continent. With the exception of the two countries mentioned above, all nations depend on the importation of food for their own sustenance, since the existence of arable land is scarce.
List of All Territories in Australia
- American Samoa (United States)
- Cook Islands (New Zealand)
- French Polynesia (France)
- Guam (United States)
- New Caledonia (France)
- Niue (New Zealand)
- Norfolk Island (Australia)
- Northern Mariana Islands (United States)
- Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom)
- Tokelau (New Zealand)
- Wake Island (United States)
- Wallis and Futuna (France)
Below you will find texts that will serve the purpose of establishing a deeper and deeper understanding of the many issues relating to Oceania.